艺术品展示 / 油画
《水果篮》(Basket of fruit)


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Basket of fruit

画 家:
卡拉瓦乔(Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio)
约 1597 - 1600 年
54.5 × 67.5 cm
安勃罗齐安娜图书馆(Ambrosian Library)

 This is probably the most famous painting in the collection of Cardinal Federico Borromeo, which formed the original nucleus of the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana. It is considered to be a sort of prototype of the “still life” genre. It shows a wicker basket brimming with fruit and leaves, rendered with great realism and attention to detail. This almost conflicts with the abstract neutral background of the painting and with the line of colour the basket itself is resting on, and from which it juts out. The founder of the Ambrosiana mentions this extraordinary painting many times in his writings and says he has searched in vain for a work that can bear comparison to it. But, he writes “for its incomparable beauty and excellence, it remained alone”. The painting has been interpreted in many different ways, some of which are religious: the extreme realism with which the fresh fruits are placed alongside those that are worm-eaten, and the leaves that gradually dry out and shrivel, give tangible form to the inexorable passing of time.


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 Basket of Fruit (c.1599) is a still life painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1610), which hangs in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana (Ambrosian Library), Milan.
 It shows a wicker basket perched on the edge of a ledge. The basket contains a selection of summer fruit:
 ... a good-sized, light-red peach attached to a stem with wormholes in the leaf resembling damage by oriental fruit moth (Orthosia hibisci). Beneath it is a single bicolored apple, shown from a stem perspective with two insect entry holes, probably codling moth, one of which shows secondary rot at the edge; one blushed yellow pear with insect predations resembling damage by leaf roller (Archips argyospita); four figs, two white and two purple—the purple ones dead ripe and splitting along the sides, plus a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata); and a single unblemished quince with a leafy spur showing fungal spots. There are four clusters of grapes, black, red, golden, and white; the red cluster on the right shows several mummied fruit, while the two clusters on the left each show an overripe berry. There are two grape leaves, one severely desiccated and shriveled while the other contains spots and evidence of an egg mass. In the right part of the basket are two green figs and a ripe black one is nestled in the rear on the left. On the sides of the basket are two disembodied shoots: to the right is a grape shoot with two leaves, both showing severe insect predations resembling grasshopper feeding; to the left is a floating spur of quince or pear.
 Much has been made of the worm-eaten, insect-predated, and generally less than perfect condition of the fruit. In line with the culture of the age, the general theme appears to revolve about the fading beauty, and the natural decaying of all things. Scholars also describe the basket of fruit as a metaphor of the Church.
 A recent X-ray study revealed that it was painted on an already used canvas painted with grotesques in the style of Caravaggio’s friend Prospero Orsi, who helped the artist in his first breakthrough into the circles of collectors such as his first patron, Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, around 1594/1595, and who remained close to him for many years thereafter.
 Scholars have had more than their usual level of disagreement in assigning a date to the painting: John T. Spike places it in 1596; Catherine Puglisi believes that 1601 is more probable; and practically every year in between has been advanced. Puglisi's reasoning seem solid, (the basket in this painting seems identical with the one in the first of Caravaggio's two versions of Supper at Emmaus - even the quince seems to be the same piece of fruit), but no consensus has emerged.
 In 1607 it was part of Cardinal Federico Borromeo’s collection, a provenance which raises the plausibility of a conscious reference to the Book of Amos. Borromeo, who was archbishop of Milan, was in Rome approximately 1597-1602 and a house guest of Del Monte in 1599. He had a special interest in the Northern European painters such as Paul Bril and Jan Brueghel the Elder, who were also in Rome at the time, (indeed, he took Breughel into his own household), and in the way they did landscapes and flowers in paintings as subjects in their own right, something not known at the time in Italian art. He would have seen the way Caravaggio did still life as incidental accessories in paintings such as Boy Bitten by a Lizard, Bacchus, in Del Monte's collection, and The Lute Player in the collection of Del Monte's friend Vincenzo Giustiniani. The scholarly Giustiniani wrote a treatise on painting years later, wherein, reflecting the hierarchical conventions of his day, he placed flowers "and other tiny things" only fifth on a twelve-scale register, but he said also that Caravaggio once said to him "that it used to take as much workmanship for him to do a good picture of flowers as it did to do one of human figures."
 Like its doppelganger in Supper at Emmaus, the basket seems to teeter on the edge of the picture-space, in danger of falling out of the painting and into the viewer's space instead. In the Supper this is a dramatic device, part of the way in which Caravaggio creates the tension of the scene; here, trompe l'oeil seems to be almost the whole purpose of the painting, if we subtract the possible didactic element. But the single element that no doubt attracted its original owner, and still catches attention today, is the extraordinary quasi-photographic realism of the observation which underlies the illusionism. Basket of Fruit can be compared with the same artist's Still Life with Fruit (c. 1603), a painting which John Spike identifies as "the source of all subsequent Roman still-life paintings."

百度翻译:http://fanyi .baidu.com








…一种大小合适的浅红色桃子,附着在茎上,叶中有虫洞,类似于东方水果蛾(直立木槿)的损害。下面是一个双色的苹果,从茎的角度看,它有两个昆虫进入孔,可能是一个蛀虫,其中一个在边缘显示二次腐烂;一个脸红的黄色梨,昆虫捕食,类似于被叶卷轴(archips argyospita)破坏;四个无花果,两个白色和两个紫色,紫色的已经熟透,裂开了一个长边,再加上一片巨大的无花果叶,有一个突出的真菌焦斑,类似炭疽病(肉芽球);还有一个单一的无瑕榅桲,有一个多叶的刺,显示出真菌斑点。葡萄有四串,黑色、红色、金色和白色;右边的红色串显示几个干果,左边的两串显示一个成熟过度的浆果。有两片葡萄叶,一片严重干燥和枯萎,另一片含有斑点和鸡蛋团块的证据。篮子的右边是两个绿色的无花果,后面左边是一个成熟的黑色无花果。在篮子的侧面有两个空腹的嫩枝:右边是一个有两片叶子的葡萄枝,这两片叶子都显示出类似于蝗虫的严重捕食;左边是一个由Quince或梨组成的浮动的枝条。

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      這明晰而結實的輪廓;這單純而質樸的光綫;這鮮明而實在的蘋果、葡萄、檸檬、無花果、竹藍、葉子、幹枯的葉子,以及這如實刻畫的蘋果上的蟲子眼;不僅標明了靜物完全可以成爲獨立的繪畫主題而存在,也標 明了卡拉瓦喬與當時追求理想化時尚格格不入的率真與求實精神。